OECD Rural Policy Reviews: England, United Kingdom 2011
Similarly, GONE was keen to align processes and systems to the requirements of One NorthEast, as a senior official within the institution acknowledged To a significant extent, the SRB enabled the transparency and the flexibility that came to characterize public policy-making in the English regions as well as a rapid recognition of local and regional needs thanks to a diagnosis built upon cooperation and consensus. However, the management of the SRB was criticized for creating competition that some localities were unable to manage Moreover, the regional initiatives had to fit within the requirements defined by the DTI and GONE, and while some localities were at an advantage, others were discouraged from applying for funding, particularly those who found it difficult to put up with the frequent changes of the SRB requirements In this case, it is important to differentiate between two types of partnership, the first one being autonomous and regionally rooted and the second being strongly influenced by the central government.
Most of the partnerships in the North East were of the latter type, which calls into question the ostensible opening up of decision-making. The promotion of governance practices seem therefore contested. Considerable resources were invested in programmes favouring business incubation and clustering. Investments in biotechnology and the pharmaceutical industry were employed to help innovation to take root in the North East.
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For this reason, their legitimacy in the representation of local and regional priorities was often challenged. The decision of One NorthEast to prioritise the funding of innovation was not made entirely independently, but was clearly hand in glove with the government orientations.
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The DTI adopted innovation as the central term in its program for economic growth in the English regions For this reason, during this period, increasing debate arose, reflecting a growing concern about the appropriateness of the RES, thus questioning the legitimacy of the initiatives carried out. The new strategy — Realising Our Potential — claimed to be more integrated and built upon cooperation and trust The new RES continued to emphasize the need to promote an entrepreneurial culture and to provide businesses with skilled workforce. The aim of the programmes funded by this initiative was to support market-led innovation across the North by investing extensively in research areas such as regenerative medicine and molecular engineering Newly established business incubators, notably those set up in the former mining localities such as Ashington and Hartlepool gave the opportunity to young entrepreneurs to take advantage of the favourable conditions and the facilities.
The dependency of the North East on traditional sectors such as manufacturing and the chemical industry has remained largely unchanged and thesesectors are as vital to its development today as they were half a century ago. This assessment has been confirmed by studies that concluded that the aspirations of the North East, as they have been set out in successive RESs, were unlikely to be reached This institution did not seem to encourage a calm climate of governance to which local and regional actors could contribute.
One of the guiding assumptions of the RDAs was that they provided the English regions with an exposure both at the national and the international level, but a comparison of the discursive representation of their activities with the actual value-added to economic development raises serious doubts. A wide range of regional plans have emphasized the impact of business incubation, clustering and biotechnology on economic growth and on job creation in the North East The hard-hitting OECD review revealed the obstacles that this region was confronted with and highlighted the importance of the traditional industries as well as the limited capacities of the region to respond to the orientations set out in the RESs ICT and Biotech sectors do not feel appropriate for this sort of economy, but the manufacturing sector is still an important part of the economy, and we think there is an enormous productivity gained from the manufacturing sector, and that this should be a priority to build economic development Moreover, the endless multiplication of regional action plans did not help these institutions to promote long-term economic strategies.
By acknowledging that the less favoured regions required more public subsidies, this paper highlights that a myriad of experiments and novel methods intended to improve the economic aspects were deployed so as to put the region at the core of competition and trigger endogenous growth. Substantial budgets have been devoted to the promotion of knowledge-based economy projects that led to the creation of business incubators and clusters in the North East. But longstanding intervention has not reached the anticipated targets and failed to reduce the persistent uneven economic development within the lagging areas.
Whether this has contributed to a long process of change has to be proved, as evidence shows that the accuracy of this emphasis is confronted with the persistent lagging position of the less favoured regions. But because of the manner of their implementation, these long-anticipated reforms in fact disconcerted the regional players while ultimately failed to bridge the economic divide. These political missteps left the institutional landscape of the English regions relatively unchanged from the pre-devolution setting.
Only the former quangos were able to carve out a stronger position within a new administrative framework. Anderson, J. Balls, E. Benneworth, P. Department of Environment, John Gummer announces measures to bring new localism to improved government services, News Release, London: Department of the Environment, Gertler, M.
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Harding, A. Harvie, C.
Building Opportunity and Security for All, Cmnd. Jeffery, C. Jones, M.
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Promoting Democratic Renewal in the English Regions. Bibliographie Anderson, J. Haut de page. Auteur Houari Mired Docteur en civilisation britannique Haut de page.
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Suivez-nous Flux RSS. Weaknesses in the transport infrastructure amplify these challenges, but lack of critical mass makes it difficult to develop the transport network. Box 2. Development challenges in predominantly rural OECD regions A consistent theme in the various OECD reviews of rural policy has been the challenge of development in territories characterised by long distances, low densities and small numbers of people, firms, organisations.
The magnitude of this problem, of course, differs from country to country. For example, it is a greater issue in Finland than in the Netherlands, and a bigger challenge for Scotland than England, even though they are both part of the United Kingdom.