The Chemical History Of A Candle by Michael Faraday (Annotated & Illustrated)

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And, finally, the library staff at the Arnold Bernhard Library would like to sincerely thank the staff of the Maynooth University Library for allowing the Last Writing of Saro-Wiwa exhibition to be displayed at Quinnipiac. It is hoped that this is just the beginning of fruitful collaborative partnerships between the libraries of Maynooth University and Quinnipiac University. The apparitions occurred on the 13 th of each month except in August when the children were not allowed to go to Cova da Iria where the apparitions occurred. She appeared instead on the 19 th August when they returned.

Lucia recalls what happened that first day. The lady spoke to the children and said she would not harm them and that on the thirteenth day of each month she would return for six months in succession. Word began to spread about the apparitions and by the fifth apparition about 30, people accompanied the children to the site.

On the sixth and last apparition on the 13 th October a crowd of about 70, people accompanied the children in torrential rain. Lucia had asked for a miracle and during the apparition Lucia asked people to look at the sun. According to eye witnesses the sun began to turn in different directions and project bands of light in different colours. It then went back to its original position but then seemed as if it was falling from the sky and the people were terrified.

Francisco in and Jacinta in from the effects of a combination of flu and tuberculosis. Much controversy and speculation has surrounded the Three Secrets of Fatima. Lucia claimed on July 13 th the Virgin Mary entrusted the children with three secrets. Two of the secrets were revealed by Lucia in at the request of her bishop. In she was instructed by her bishop to reveal the third secret which she was reluctant to do until she received an order to put it in writing. She did so with the proviso that it not be revealed until The text of the third secret was eventually publically revealed in by John Paul II.

Lucia became a nun and died at the Carmelite convent of Santa Teresa in Coimbra, Portugal on 13 th February aged The Library holds a number of books relating to the apparitions of Fatima and Special Collections holds four pamphlets and one book relating to what happened at Fatima. The apparitions of Our Lady at Fatima: the story of the apparitions by H.

Published by the Catholic Truth Society Mary warns the world: Fatima by J. Published by the Holy Ghost Fathers What happened at Fatima by J. This copy was once owned by Dr. The Dictionary contains word definitions and meanings, different proverbial expressions, as well as the main terms of the sciences and the arts. The Italian lexicographer Ambrogio Calepino first published his Latin dictionary in Later editions including the one displayed include translations of Latin words into various other languages such as Hebrew, French, German, Spanish, Italian, and English.

The page displayed features a lively description of the babouin [baboon]:. This blog provides a snapshot into what is on display in the Russell Library at the moment. Margaret Anna Cusack was born into a wealthy protestant family in She founded Kenmare Publications and used the money from her publications in the running of the convent, charitable works and other church related projects. She lived with her family in Coolock during her childhood, but after the separation of her parents in her teenage years she went to live with a grand-aunt in England.

In as Sr. Mary Francis Clare she was sent with seven other nuns to found a new convent in Kenmare, Co. She was an energetic, determined and strong willed woman with a business acumen probably not suited to convent life especially in the enclosed order of the Poor Clares. Because of her outspoken views on Irish nationalism she often came into conflict with local landlords in Kerry, the Catholic church hierarchy and her religious superiors.

She became a prolific writer during the twenty years she spent in Kenmare and wrote in all 35 books on Irish history and biography including many pious and religious texts. She was helped by two full-time secretaries as her research and writing necessitated much correspondence.

In Special Collections we hold several of her publications including An illustrated history of Ireland from the earliest period, A history of the city and county of Cork and Life inside the Church of Rome. The re-emergence of famine in Kerry during generated fear of a repeat of the tragedy of the Great Famine. In her letters she attacked local landlords particularly Lord Lansdowne and his agent Townsend Trench which generated hostility towards her from the establishment both secular and religious. Opposition to her continued especially with a new parish priest. Isolated and alone without friends she left the Kenmare Poor Clares in Her transfer orders were for her to return to her mother house in Newry but on the way she stopped off at Knock where the apparition had appeared two years previously.

She stayed and Archbishop McEvilly of Tuam wanted her to found a Poor Clare convent whereas she wanted to setup a new convent of her own called the Sisters of St. Joseph of Peace. She started fund-raising and with her reputation and name she soon had had enough money to draw up plans and start the building. It was to be a substantial house close to the church and appropriate to the incipient shrine of Knock.

Work started on the building but in the event of her not receiving permission opposition grew against her particularly from the parish priest of Knock who left no stone unturned to remove her. She eventually leaves Knock with a half finished convent and refused to finish the convent for someone else to take over.

It became a ball-alley for local youths for many years until it was eventually demolished. Canon Bourke writing to Mgr. She was persuaded to go to Nottingham and establish a convent there. Joseph of Peace which was intended as a home for friendless girls where domestic service and good moral habits would be taught. She opened her first house in Nottingham and then went to America in order to raise money and promote her work. While there she was invited to establish a community in Englewood in the Diocese of Newark.

It was the only convent she established in America although her vision was to establish many houses. Entrenched and sustained opposition to her blocked every effort she made. She travelled to many places along the east coast and even as far west as Seattle but the results were always the same.

The Chemical History of a Candle - Wikisource, the free online library

Despite promising invitations all efforts in the end came to nothing. Shortly after her arrival in America she was attacked in the press by a Fr. Will anyone in his right mind give her more money to squander, after the monument of folly she has left at Knock? Apart from the perceived ignoring of regulations and vows part of the opposition to her may have been her extraordinary success in raising money. By her later years in Kenmare she had become a controversial and polarised figure who continued to make powerful enemies.

She had created a name for herself as a writer and was responsible for many good works. But she could have achived much more had opposition to her not been so entrenched. But possibly her outspoken criticisms of injustices and short circuiting established ecclesiastical routes in pursuit of her ambitions contributed to the opposition. The earnings from her writings supported her convents and after she left the Catholic church she also gave lectures to air her grievances and supplement her income. She died in age Utopia depicts a fictional island where all the inhabitants share a common culture and live a simple shared lifestyle.

Canon Thomas Finan, St. In this book More sets out what he considers to be an ideal society. Firstly there would be no private property and goods would be stored in warehouses where the inhabitants would request what they needed. The Utopian state would be a welfare state with free hospitals, euthanasia is permitted, priests are allowed to marry, divorce is permitted, premarital sex is forbidden as is adultery. Slavery is allowed — each household is allowed two slaves.

Slaves either come from other countries or citizens may become slaves as a means of punishment. There would be no locks on doors. I have since found free PDF reprints on the web that include the original figures. I want someone to recreate these lectures; they were fun to read but my feeble mind needs visual upon which to latch. Bill Nye, are you reading this? Mar 18, Phillip Johnson rated it really liked it Shelves: science.

Amazing that so much of the combustion processes known today were understood approaching now years ago. Some of the language is scientifically out of date and a few experiments were a bit to follow in writing. So a reading of the lectures should be brisk, capturing the main points. Jun 05, Amar Kamat rated it it was amazing.

I had to read this book for a senior-level combustion class that I took some years ago. Through the simple example of a candle and using easy-to-follow arguments, Faraday is able to deduce the physics involved around the flame the capillary action of the wick, the convection currents, the combustion inside the flame and boil it down to the level of laymen this book is a collection of lectures he gave to children to popularize science in his day. Faraday had minimal mathematical training, and I had to read this book for a senior-level combustion class that I took some years ago.

Faraday had minimal mathematical training, and was more "visual" in his thinking and arguments like Einstein. This book offers a fascinating insight into the mind of arguably the best experimental physicist we have known. This book was mentioned in Richard Feynman's The Meaning Of It All: And then electricity, the forces of attraction, of plus and minus, are so strong that in any normal substance all the pluses and minuses are carefully balanced out, everything pulled together with everything else.

For a long time no one even noticed the phenomenon of electricity, except once in a while when they rubbed a piece of amber and it attracted a piece of paper. And yet today we find, by playing with these things, that we This book was mentioned in Richard Feynman's The Meaning Of It All: And then electricity, the forces of attraction, of plus and minus, are so strong that in any normal substance all the pluses and minuses are carefully balanced out, everything pulled together with everything else.

And yet today we find, by playing with these things, that we have a tremendous amount of machinery inside. Yet science is still not thoroughly appreciated. The point of Faraday's lectures was that no matter what you look at, if you look at it closely enough, you are involved in the entire universe.

And so he got, by looking at every feature of the candle, into combustion, chemistry, etc This book is a transcript of the lecture, yet the language and the explanation is brilliant! Unfortunately the copy I read didn't have the illustration figures, try and find one. It should make the learning more fruitful. Will definitely revisit this book. An amazing account of the life of a candle! Considering this series of lectures and demonstrations took place in the 17th century, the noteworthy aspect is the variety and the ingenuity of the experiments that were devised to analyse the combustion process that occurs in an otherwise seemingly mundane candle.

The candle, merely a light provider with so many complexities up its waxy sleeve. The language used is of a very quaint style; now would be considered unscientific. The fact that Carbon-di- An amazing account of the life of a candle! The fact that Carbon-di-oxide is called carbonic oxide, makes me realise how far science has progressed in all kinds of ways- in the way experiments and findings are presented. After reading this book, it makes me want to go back to the 17th century era to witness Faraday demonstrating these experiments to the public.

In the last lecture, Faraday concludes with a philosophical thought comparing all of us to candles.

All I can say is, Alere Falammam! Mar 18, Jessica rated it really liked it. Lovely set of scientific lectures aimed at young people on the many, many things that can be learned from a candle. I do not have a scientific background, but I was able to follow along quite well. You can find the experiments recreated on YouTube.

I love how Faraday shows such tenderness towards his young audience; you can tell he was a wonderful and caring teacher. In the last lecture his insights move towards the universal and theological. Highly recommended. Sep 06, A. Beckert rated it really liked it Shelves: history , borrowed , instructional , nonfiction , nature , Faraday was clearly more than a lecturer, he was a skilled teacher. The lectures themselves are accessible and fun, but do go quickly to chemistry experiments students these days wouldn't see until high school or college - some real dangerous metals involved!

He's the opposite of "dont try this at home"! Overall it was interesting. There were a lot of concepts presented. For me it was hard to read at times as a writtenwork. It would have been much easier to follow when given in lecture form. Perhaps more illustrations could have clarified a few things for me. I read this when I was playing with candle-making in Pittsburgh and it was a really fascinating scientific read; Written in a style that was exceptionally easy to read and follow.

I purchased it more recently hoping the boys might enjoy reading it but I don't think they ever did. This book is 10x better as a video, as it is close to a transcript. Concepts are interesting, however the format of this book is not the best way to consume these insights. I thoroughly enjoyed this book and appreciate Faraday even more after reading it. Aug 20, Matt rated it liked it. Difficult to visualize all the experiments being described, though Bill Hammack's YouTube videos help in this regard. Sep 03, Will Boncher rated it really liked it. Hearing these lectures in person would have been excellent.

Feb 08, Chris Hart rated it it was ok. I picked this one up because it was the shortest. Mass communication has moved on from Dr Faraday and from the Great Books. Reading this was like reading a transcript of a youtube video.

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I'm sure it was fascinating to see his lectures in person and the experiments he demonstrated. In print And candles were obviously much more important in the 19th century than they are now, when I use them to scent the air in my h My New Year's non-resolution was to read the Harvard "Great Books". And candles were obviously much more important in the 19th century than they are now, when I use them to scent the air in my home and not at all for light. I expect this to be decent, but fear Enlightenment-era English twaddle.

The physicists of last century's turn were a strange lot. The very favourable reception which my book has met with, both from the press and the public, seems to call for my grateful acknowledgment on the issue of a second edition. In revising the former, I have added some further particulars about Faraday, especially in regard to "his method of working;" and an engraving from a photograph by Watkins, which best recalls to my recollection the features and the usual expression of the genial philosopher.

At the beginning of this century, in the neighbourhood of Manchester Square, London, there was an inquisitive boy running about, playing at marbles, and minding his baby-sister. He lived in Jacob's Well Mews, close by, and was learning the three R's at a common day-school. Few passers-by would have noticed him, and none certainly would have imagined that this boy, as he grew up, was to achieve the truest success in life, and to die honoured by the great, the wise, and the good.

Yet so it was; and to tell the story of his life, to trace the sources of this success, and to depict some of the noble results of his work, are the objects of this biographical sketch. It was not at Jacob's Well Mews, but in Newington Butts, that the boy had been born, on September 22, , and his parents, James and Margaret Faraday, had given this, their third child, the unusual name of Michael. The father was a journeyman blacksmith, a skilful workman who, in spite of [2] poverty and feeble health, strove to bring up his children in habits of industry and the love of God.

Of course young Michael must soon do something for his living. There happened to be a bookseller's shop in Blandford Street, a few doors from the entrance to the Mews, kept by a Mr. Riebau, an intelligent man, who is said to have had a leaning to astrology; and there he went as errand boy when thirteen years old. Many a weary walk he had, carrying round newspapers to his master's customers; but he did his work faithfully; and so, after a twelvemonth, the bookseller was willing to take him as an apprentice, and that without a premium.

Now, a boy in a bookseller's shop can look at the inside as well as the outside of the books he handles, and young Faraday took advantage of his position, and fed on such intellectual food as Watts's "Improvement of the Mind," Mrs. Marcet's statements were correct, and so, to quote his own words, "I made such simple experiments in chemistry as could be defrayed in their expense by a few pence per week, and also constructed an electrical machine, first with a glass phial, and afterwards with a real cylinder, as well as other electrical apparatus of a corresponding kind.

He kept too a note-book called "The Philosophical Miscellany," intended, he tells us, "to promote both amusement and instruction, and also to corroborate or invalidate those theories which are continually starting into the world of science;" and miscellaneous indeed were the scraps he gathered from the magazines of the time. One day, early in , walking somewhere in the neighbourhood of Fleet Street, he saw in a shop-window a bill announcing that lectures on natural philosophy were delivered by Mr.

Tatum, at 53, Dorset Street, at eight in the evening, price of admission one shilling. He wanted to hear these lectures. His master's permission was obtained, but where was the money to come from? The needful shillings were given him by his elder brother, Robert, who earned them as a blacksmith; and so Michael Faraday made his first acquaintance with scientific lectures. And not with lectures only, for Tatum's house was frequented by other earnest students, and lifelong friendships were formed.

Among these students was Benjamin Abbott, a young Quaker, who had received a good education, and had then a situation in a City house as confidential clerk. With him Faraday chatted on philosophy or anything else, and happily for us [4] he chatted on paper, in letters of that fulness and length which the penny post and the telegraph have well-nigh driven out of existence; and happily for us, too, Abbott kept those letters, and Dr. Bence Jones has published them.

They are wonderful letters for a poor bookseller's apprentice; they bear the stamp of an innate gentleman and philosopher. Long afterwards, when Benjamin Abbott was an old man, he used to tell how Faraday made his first experiments in the kitchen of his house, and delivered his first lecture from the end of that kitchen table. The electrical machine made by him in those early days came into the possession of Sir James South, and now forms one of the treasures of the Royal Institution.

As the eager student drank in the lectures of Tatum, he took notes, and he afterwards wrote them out carefully in a clear hand, numbering and describing the different experiments that he saw performed, and making wonderfully neat drawings of the apparatus, in good perspective. These notes he bound in four volumes, adding to each a copious index, and prefixing to the first this dedication to his master:—.

To you, therefore, is to be attributed the rise and existence of that small portion of knowledge relating to the science which I possess, and accordingly to you are due my acknowledgments. Permit me, therefore, Sir, to return thanks in this manner for the many favours I have received at your hands and by your means and believe me,. Now there happened to be lodging at Mr. Riebau's a notable foreigner of the name of Masquerier. He was a distinguished artist, who had painted Napoleon's portrait, and had passed through the stirring events of the first French Revolution, not without serious personal danger, and was now finding a refuge and a home in London.

He was struck with the intelligence of the apprentice, whose duty it was to do various offices for him; and he lent the young man his books, and taught him how to make the drawings in perspective which have already been alluded to. But the lectures in Dorset Street were not the only ones that Michael Faraday attended; and as the Royal Institution is the central scene of all his subsequent history, we must pay a mental visit to that building.

Between these are folding doors, which are pushed open from time to time [6] by grave-looking gentlemen, many of them white-headed; but often of an afternoon, and always on Friday evening during the season, the quiet street is thronged with carriages and pedestrians, ladies and gentlemen, who flock through these folding doors.

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Entering with them, we find ourselves in a vestibule, with a large stone staircase in front, and rooms opening on the right and left. The walls of these rooms are lined with myriads of books, and the tables are covered with scientific and other periodicals of the day, and there are cabinets of philosophical apparatus and a small museum. Going up the broad staircase and turning to the right, we pass through an ante-room to the lecture theatre.

There stands the large table, horseshoe-shaped, with the necessary appliances for experiments, and behind it a furnace and arrangements for black-board and diagrams; while round the table as a centre range semicircular seats, rising tier above tier, and surmounted by a semicircular gallery, the whole capable of seating persons. On the basement is a new chemical laboratory, fitted up with modern appliances, and beyond it the old laboratory, with its furnaces and sand-bath, its working tables and well-stored shelves, flanked by cellars that look like dark lumber-rooms.

A narrow private staircase leads up to the suite of apartments in which resides the Director of the house. The side room, too, was fitted up for actual work, though even at mid-day it had to be artificially lighted; and beyond this there was, and still is, a place called the Froggery, from a certain old tradition of frogs having been kept there. The first intention of the founders to exhibit useful inventions had not been found very practicable, but the place was already famous with the memories of Rumford and Young; and at that time the genius of Sir Humphry Davy was entrancing the intellectual world with brilliant discoveries, and drawing fashionable audiences to Albemarle Street to listen to his eloquent expositions.

Among the customers of the bookseller in Blandford Street was a Mr. Dance, who, being a member of the Royal Institution, took young Faraday to hear the last four public lectures of Davy. The eager student sat in the gallery, just over the clock, and took copious notes of the Professor's explanations of radiant matter, chlorine, simple inflammables, and metals, while he watched the experiments that were performed.

Afterwards he wrote the lectures fairly out in a quarto volume, that is still preserved—first the theoretical portions, then the experiments with drawings, and finally an index. Naturally enough, 'No answer' was the reply left with the porter. No wonder he sighed still more for congenial occupation. Towards the end of that same October Sir Humphry Davy was working on a new liquid which was violently explosive, now known as chloride of nitrogen,—and he met with an accident that seriously injured his eye, and produced an attack of inflammation.

Of course, for a while he could not write, and, possibly through the introduction of M. Masquerier, [2] the young bookseller was employed as his amanuensis. This, however, Faraday himself tells us lasted only "some days;" and in writing years afterwards to Dr.

Paris, he says, "My desire to escape from trade, which I thought vicious and selfish, and to enter into the service of Science, which I imagined made its pursuers amiable and liberal, induced me at last to take the bold and simple step of writing to Sir H. Davy, expressing my wishes, and a hope that, if an opportunity came in his way, he would favour my views; at the same time I sent the notes I had taken of his lectures. Here is a letter from a young man named Faraday; he has been attending my lectures, and wants me to give [9] him employment at the Royal Institution— what can I do?

So Davy wrote a kind reply, and had an interview with the young man upon the subject; in which, however, he advised him to stick to his business, telling him that "Science was a harsh mistress, and, in a pecuniary point of view, but poorly rewarding those who devoted themselves to her service. But shortly afterwards the laboratory assistant was discharged for misconduct, and so it happened that one night the inhabitants of quiet Weymouth Street were startled by the unusual apparition of a grand carriage with a footman, which drew up before the house where Faraday lived, when the servant left a note from Sir Humphry Davy.

The next morning there was an interview, which resulted in the young aspirant for scientific work being engaged to help the famous philosopher. His engagement dates from March 1, , and he was to get 25 s. The duties had been previously laid down by the managers:—"To attend and assist the lecturers and professors in preparing for, and during lectures. Where any instruments or apparatus may be required, to attend to their careful removal from the model room and laboratory to the lecture-room, and to clean and replace them after being used; reporting to the managers such accidents as shall require repair, a constant diary being kept by him for that purpose.

That in one day in [10] each week he be employed in keeping clean the models in the repository, and that all the instruments in the glass cases be cleaned and dusted at least once within a month. The young assistant did not confine himself to the mere discharge of these somewhat menial duties. He put in order the mineralogical collection; and from the first we find him occupying a higher position than the minute quoted above would indicate.

In the course of a few days he was extracting sugar from beet-root; but all his laboratory proceedings were not so pleasant or so innocent as that, for he had to make one of the worst smelling of all chemical compounds, bisulphide of carbon; and as Davy continued to work on the explosive chloride of nitrogen, his assistant's career stood some chance of being suddenly cut short at its commencement.

Indeed it seems that before the middle of April he had run the gauntlet of four separate explosions. Knowing that the liquid would go off on the slightest provocation, the experimenters wore masks of glass, but this did not save them from injury. In one case Faraday was holding a small tube containing a few grains of it between his finger and thumb, and brought a piece of warm cement near it, when he was suddenly stunned, and on returning to consciousness found himself standing with his hand in the same position, but torn by the shattered tube, and the glass of his mask even cut by the projected fragments.

Nor was it easy to say when the compound could be relied on, for it seemed very capricious; for instance, one day it rose quietly in vapour in a tube exhausted by the air-pump, but the next day, when subjected to the same treatment, it exploded with a fearful [11] noise, and Sir Humphry was cut about the chin, and was struck with violence on the forehead. This seems to have put an end to the experiments. Nevertheless, in spite of disagreeables and dangers, the embryo philosopher worked on with a joyful heart, beguiling himself occasionally with a song, and in the evening playing tunes on his flute.

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The change in Michael Faraday's employment naturally made him more earnest still in the pursuit of knowledge. He was admitted as a member of the "City Philosophical Society," a fraternity of thirty or forty men in the middle or lower ranks of life, who met every Wednesday evening for mutual instruction; and here is a contemporary picture of him at one of its debates:—.

Another way in which he strove to educate himself is thus described in his own words:—"During this spring Magrath and I established the mutual improvement plan, and met at my rooms up in the attics of the Royal Institution, or at Wood Street at his warehouse. It consisted, perhaps, of half-a-dozen persons, chiefly from the City Philosophical Society, who met of an evening to read together, and to criticise, correct, and improve each other's pronunciation and construction of language.

The discipline was very sturdy, the remarks very plain and open, and the results most valuable. This continued for several years.

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Seven months after his appointment there began a new passage in Faraday's life, which gave a fresh impulse to his mental activity, and largely extended his knowledge of men and things. Sir Humphry Davy, wishing to travel on the Continent, and having received a special pass from the Emperor Napoleon, offered to take him as his amanuensis: he accepted the proposal, and for a year and a half they wandered about France, Italy, and Switzerland, and then they returned rapidly by the Tyrol, Germany, and Holland.

From letters written when abroad we can catch some of the impressions made on his mind by these novel scenes. To me, who had lived all my days of remembrance in London, a city surrounded by a flat green country, a hill was a mountain, and a stone a rock; for though I had abstract ideas of the things, and could say rock and mountain, and would talk of them, yet I had no perfect ideas.

The sea then presented a new source of information and interest; and on approaching the shores of France, with what eagerness, and how often, were my eyes directed to the South! When arrived there, I thought myself in an uncivilized country; for never before nor since have I seen such wretched beings as at Morlaix.

Again, to her towards whom his heart was wont to turn from distant lands with no small longing: "I have said nothing as yet to you, dear mother, about our past journey, which has been as pleasant and agreeable a few things excepted, in reality nothing as it was possible to be. Sir H. Davy's high name at Paris gave us free admission into all parts of the French dominions, and our passports were granted with the utmost readiness. We first went to Paris, and stopped there two months; afterwards we passed, in a southerly direction, through France to Montpellier, on the borders of the Mediterranean.

From thence we went to Nice, stopping a day or two at Aix on our way; and from Nice we crossed the Alps to Turin, in Piedmont. From [14] Turin we proceeded to Genoa, which place we left afterwards in an open boat, and proceeded by sea towards Lerici. This place we reached after a very disagreeable passage, and not without apprehensions of being overset by the way. As there was nothing there very enticing, we continued our route to Florence; and, after a stay of three weeks or a month, left that fine city, and in four days arrived here at Rome.

Being now in the midst of things curious and interesting, something arises every day which calls for attention and observations. The relics of ancient Roman magnificence, the grandeur of the churches, and their richness also—the difference of habits and customs, each in turn engages the mind, and keeps it continually employed.

Florence, too, was not destitute of its attractions for me, and in the Academy del Cimento and the museum attached to it is contained an inexhaustible fund of entertainment and improvement; indeed, during the whole journey, new and instructive things have been continually presented to me. Tell B.

Peter's, and some of the antiquities here, and a vast variety of things far too numerous to enumerate. But he kept a lengthy journal, and as we turn over the pages—for the best part of it is printed by Bence Jones—we meet vivid sketches of the provokingly slow custom-house [15] officers, the postilion in jack-boots, and the thin pigs of Morlaix—pictures of Paris, too, when every Frenchman was to him an unintelligible enemy; when the Apollo Belvidere, the Venus de Medici, and the Dying Gladiator were at the Louvre, and when the First Napoleon visited the Senate in full state.

The whole, too, is interspersed with bits of fun, and this culminates at the Roman Carnival, where he evidently thoroughly enjoyed the follies of the Corso, the pelting with sugar-plums, and the masked balls, to the last of which he went in a nightgown and nightcap, with a lady who knew all his acquaintances; and between the two they puzzled their friends mightily.

This year and a half may be considered as the time of Faraday's education; it was the period of his life that best corresponds with the collegiate course of other men who have attained high distinction in the world of thought. But his University was Europe; his professors the master whom he served, and those illustrious men to whom the renown of [16] Davy introduced the travellers. It made him personally known, also, to foreign savants , at a time when there was little intercourse between Great Britain and the Continent; and thus he was associated with the French Academy of Sciences while still young, his works found a welcome all over Europe, and some of the best representatives of foreign science became his most intimate friends.

In May , his engagement at the Royal Institution was renewed, with a somewhat higher position and increased salary, which was again raised in the following year to l. The handwriting in the Laboratory Note-book changes in September , from the large running letters of Brande to the small neat characters of Faraday, his first entry having reference to an analysis of "Dutch turf ash," and then soon occur investigations into the nature of substances bearing what must have been to him the mysterious names of Paligenetic tincture, and Baphe eugenes chruson. It is to be hoped that the constituents of this golden dye agreed together better than the Greek words of its name.

We can imagine the young philosopher taking a deeper interest in the researches on flame which his master was then carrying out, and in the gradual perfection of the safety-lamp that was to bid defiance to the explosive gases of the mine; this at least is certain, that Davy, in the preface to his celebrated paper on the subject, expresses himself "indebted to Mr. Michael Faraday for much able assistance," and that the youthful investigator carefully preserved the manuscript given him to copy. Part of his duty, in fact, was to copy such papers; and as Sir Humphry had a habit of destroying them, he begged [17] leave to keep the originals, and in that way collected two large volumes of precious manuscripts.

But there came a change. Hitherto he had been absorbing; now he was to emit. The knowledge which had been a source of delight to himself must now overflow as a blessing to others: and this in two ways. His first lecture was given at the City Philosophical Society on January 17, , and in the same year his first paper was published in the Quarterly Journal of Science. The lecture was on the general properties of matter; the paper was an analysis of some native caustic lime from Tuscany.

Neither was important in itself, but each resembled those little streams which travellers are taken to look at because they are the sources of mighty rivers, for Faraday became the prince of experimental lecturers, and his long series of published researches have won for him the highest niche in the temple of science.

When he began to investigate for himself, it could not have been easy to separate his own work from that which he was expected to do for his master. Hence no small danger of misunderstandings and jealousies; and some of these ugly attendants on rising fame did actually throw their black shadows over the intercourse between the older and the younger man of genius. In these earlier years, however, all appears to have been bright; and the following letter, written from Rome in October , will give a good idea of the assistant's miscellaneous duties, and of the pleasant feelings of Davy towards him.

It may be added that in another letter he is requested to send some dozens of "flies with pale bodies" to Florence, for Sir Humphry loved fly-fishing as well as philosophy. Hatchett I find that you have found the parallax of Mr. West's Sirius, and that, as I expected, he is mistaken. Morland and Messrs. Drummond, which perhaps you will be good enough to deliver.


Hatchett's letter contained praises of you which were very gratifying to me; and pray believe me there is no one more interested in your success and welfare than your sincere well-wisher and friend,. It must not be supposed, however, that he had any astronomical duties, for the parallax he had found was not that of the Dog-star, but of a reputed new metal, Sirium, which was resolved in Faraday's hands into iron, nickel, and sulphur. But the impostor was not to be put down so easily, for he turned up again under the alias of Vestium; but again he was unable to escape the vigilant eye of the young detective, for one known substance after another was removed from it; and then, says Faraday, "my Vestium entirely disappeared.

His occupations during this period were multifarious enough. We must picture him to ourselves as a young-looking man of about thirty years of age, well made, and neat [19] in his dress, his cheerfulness of disposition often breaking out in a short crispy laugh, but thoughtful enough when something important is to be done. He has to prepare the apparatus for Brande's lectures, and when the hour has arrived he stands on the right of the Professor, and helps him to produce the strange transformations of the chemical art.

And conjurers, indeed, the two appear in the eyes of the youth on the left, who waits upon them, then the "laboratory assistant," now the well-known author, Mr. William Bollaert, from whom I have learnt many details of this period. When not engaged with the lectures, Faraday is manufacturing rare chemicals, or performing commercial analyses, or giving scientific evidence on trials.

One of these was a famous one, arising from the Imperial Insurance Company resisting the claim of Severn and King, sugar-bakers; and in it appeared all the chemists of the day, like knights in the lists, on opposite sides, ready to break a lance with each other. All his spare time Faraday was occupied with original work. Chlorine had a fascination for him, though the yellow choking gas would get out into the room, and he investigated its combinations with carbon, squeezed it into a liquid, and applied it successfully as a disinfectant when fatal fever broke out in the Millbank Penitentiary.

Iodine too, another of Davy's elements, was made to join itself to carbon and hydrogen; and naphthaline was tormented with strong mineral acids. Long, too, he tried to harden steel and prevent its rusting, by alloying it with small quantities of platinum and the rarer metals; the boy blew the bellows till the crucibles melted, but a few ordinary razors seem to [20] have been the best results. The rising philosopher indulged, too, in other recreations. He had a wonderful velocipede, a progenitor of the modern bicycle, which often took him of an early morning to Hampstead Hill.

There was also his flute; and a small party for the practice of vocal music once a week at a friend's house. He sang bass correctly, both as to time and tune. And though the City Philosophical Society was no more, the ardent group of students of nature who used to meet there were not wholly dispersed. They seem to have carried on their system of mutual improvement, and to have read the current scientific journals at Mr. Nicol's house till he married, and then alternately at those of Mr. Solly, Mr. Ainger, and Mr. Hennel, of Apothecaries' Hall, [21] who came to a tragical end through an explosion of fulminating silver.

Several of them, including Mr. Cornelius Varley, joined the Society of Arts, which at that time had committees of various sciences, and was very democratic in its management; and, finding that by pulling together they had great influence, they constituted themselves a "caucus," adopting the American word, and meeting in private. Magrath was looked upon as a "chair-maker," and Faraday in subsequent years held the office of Chairman of the Committee of Chemistry, and occasionally he presided at the large meetings of the Society.

Its members were the aristocracy of science, literature, and art, and they made Faraday their honorary secretary; but after a year he transferred the office to his friend Magrath, who held it for a long period. Among the various sects into which Christendom is divided, few are less known than the Sandemanians. About a century and a half ago, when there was little light in the Presbyterian Church of Scotland, a pious minister of the name of John Glas began to preach that the Church should be governed only by the teaching of Christ and His apostles, that its connection with the State was an error, and that we ought to believe and to practise no more and no less than what we find from the New Testament that the primitive Church believed and practised.

These principles, which sound very familiar in these days, procured for their asserter much obloquy and a deposition by the Church Courts, in consequence of which several separate congregations were [22] formed in different parts of Great Britain, especially by Robert Sandeman, the son-in-law of Mr. Glas, and from him they received their common appellation.

In early days they taught a simpler view of faith than was generally held at that time; it was with them a simple assent of the understanding, but produced by the Spirit of God, and its virtue depended not on anything mystical in the operation itself, but on the grandeur and beauty of the things believed.

Now, however, there is little to distinguish them in doctrine from other adherents of the Puritan theology, though they certainly concede a greater deference to their elders, and attach more importance to the Lord's Supper than is usual among the Puritan Churches. Their form of worship, too, resembles that of the Presbyterians; but they hold that each congregation should have a plurality of elders, pastors, or bishops, who are unpaid men; that on every "first day of the week" they are bound to assemble, not only for prayers and preaching, but also for "breaking of bread," and putting together their weekly offerings; that the love-feast and kiss of charity should continue to be practised; that "blood and things strangled" are still forbidden as food; and that a disciple of Christ should not charge interest on loans except in the case of purely business transactions, or lay up wealth for the unknown future, but rather consider all he possesses as at the service of his poorer brethren, and be ready to perform to them such offices of kindness as in the early Church were expressed by washing one another's feet.

Reward Yourself

But what gives the remarkable character to the adherents of this sect is their perfect isolation from all Christian [23] fellowship outside their own community, and from all external religious influence. They have never made missionary efforts to win men from the world, and have long ceased to draw to themselves members from other Churches; so they have rarely the advantage of fresh blood, or fresh views of the meaning of Scripture.

They commonly intermarry, and are expected to "bear one another's burthens;" so the Church has acquired somewhat of the additional character of a large intertwined family and of a mutual benefit society. This rigid separation from the world, extending now through three or four generations, has produced a remarkable elevation of moral tone and refinement of manner; and it is said that no one unacquainted with the inner circle can conceive of the brotherly affection that reigns there, or the extent to which hospitality and material help is given without any ostentation, and received without any loss of self-respect.

The body is rendered still more seclusive by demanding, not merely unity of spirit among its members, but unanimity of opinion in every Church transaction. In order to secure this, any dissentient who persists in his opinion after repeated argument is rejected; the same is also the consequence of neglect of Church duties, as well as of any grave moral offence: and in such a community excommunication is a serious social ban, and though a penitent may be received back once, he can never return a second time.

It was in the midst of this little community that Faraday received his earliest religious impressions, and among them he found his ecclesiastical home till the day of his entrance into the Church above. Among the elders of the Sandemanian Church in London was Mr. Barnard, a silversmith, of Paternoster Row. The young philosopher became a visitor at his house, and though he had previously written,—. You know my former prejudices and my present thoughts—you know my weaknesses, my vanity, my whole mind; you have converted me from one erroneous way, let me hope you will attempt to correct what others are wrong Again and again I attempt to say what I feel, but I cannot.

Let me, however, claim not to be the selfish being that wishes to bend your affections for his own sake only. In whatever way I can best minister to your happiness, either by assiduity or by absence, it shall be done. Do not injure me by withdrawing your friendship, or punish me for aiming to be more than a friend by making me less; and if you cannot grant me more, leave me what I possess,—but hear me.

The lady hesitated, and went to Margate. There he followed her, and they proceeded together to Dover and Shakspeare's Cliff, and he returned to London full of happiness and hope. He loved her with all the ardour of his nature, and in due course, on June 12, , they were [25] married. The bridegroom desired that there should be no bustle or noise at the wedding, and that the day should not be specially distinguished; but he calls it himself "an event which more than any other contributed to his happiness and healthful state of mind.

Doubtless at any time between their marriage and his final illness he might have written to her as he did from Birmingham, at the time of the British Association:—"After all, there is no pleasure like the tranquil pleasures of home, and here—even here—the moment I leave the table, I wish I were with you in quiet.

My runs into the world in this way only serve to make me esteem that happiness the more. He took his bride home to Albemarle Street, and there they spent their wedded life; but until Mr. Barnard's death it was their custom to go every Saturday to the house of the worthy silversmith, and spend Sunday with him, returning home usually in the evening of that day. His own father died while he was at Riebau's, but his mother, a grand-looking woman, lived long afterwards, supported by her son, whom she occasionally visited at the Institution, and of whose growing reputation she was not a little proud.

With a mind calmed and strengthened by this beautiful domestic life, he continued with greater and greater enthusiasm to ask questions of Nature, and to interpret her replies to his fellow-men. Just before his marriage he had been appointed at the Royal Institution superintendent of the house and laboratory, and in February , after a [26] change in the management of the Institution, he was placed as director in a position of greater responsibility and influence.

One of his first acts in this capacity was to invite the members to a scientific evening in the laboratory; this took place three or four times in , and in the following years these gatherings were held every week from Feb. Thus commenced those Friday evening meetings which have done so much to popularize the high achievements of science. Faraday's note-books are still preserved, containing the minutes of the committee-meetings every Thursday afternoon, the Duke of Somerset chairman, and he secretary; also the record of the Friday evenings themselves, who lectured, and on what subject, and what was exhibited in the library, till June , when other arrangements were probably made.

The year was otherwise fruitful in lectures: in the spring, a course of twelve on chemical manipulation at the London Institution; after Easter, his first course at Albemarle Street, six lectures on chemical philosophy he had helped Professor Brande in ; [3] and at Christmas, his desire to convey knowledge, and his love to children, found expression in a course of six lectures to the boys and girls home for their holidays. These were a great success; [27] indeed, he himself says they "were just what they ought to have been, both in matter and manner,—but it would not answer to give an extended course in the same spirit.

The notes for courses of lectures were written in school copy-books, and sometimes he appends a general remark about the course, not always so favourable as the one given above. Thus he writes, "The eight lectures on the operations of the laboratory, April , were not to my mind. Up to Faraday was bringing the forces of nature in subjection to man on a salary of only l. This was John Fuller, a member of Parliament. He founded a Professorship of Chemistry with an endowment that brings in nearly l. When the Institution became richer, his income was increased; and when, on account of the infirmities of age, he could no longer investigate, lecture, or keep accounts, the managers insisted on his still retaining in name his official connection with the place, with his salary and his residence there.

Nor indeed could they well have acted otherwise; for though the Royal Institution afforded in the first instance a congenial soil for the budding powers of Faraday, his growth [28] soon became its strength; and eventually the blooming of his genius, and the fruit it bore, were the ornament and glory of the Institution. It will be asked, Was this l. No; in early days he did commercial analyses, and other professional work, which paid far better than pure science.

In his gains from this source amounted to 1, l. And then he had to face another problem—his own mental force might be turned either to the acquisition of a fortune, or to the following up of those great discoveries; it would not do both: which should he relinquish? The choice was deliberately made: Nature revealed to him more and more of her secrets, but his professional gains sank in to l. Still his work was not entirely confined to his favourite studies.

In a letter to Lord Auckland, long afterwards, he says:—"I have given up, for the last ten years or more, all professional occupation, and voluntarily resigned a large income that I might pursue in some degree my own objects of research. But in doing this I have always, as a good subject, held myself ready to assist the Government if still [29] in my power, not for pay ; for, except in one instance and then only for the sake of the person joined with me , I refused to take it.

I have the honour and pleasure of applications, and that very recently, from the Admiralty, the Ordnance, the Home Office, the Woods and Forests, and other departments, all of which I have replied to, and will reply to as long as strength is left me. In he became scientific adviser to the Trinity House, and his letter to the Deputy Master also shows his feelings in reference to such employment:—"You have left the title and the sum in pencil. These I look at mainly as regards the character of the appointment; you will believe me to be sincere in this, when you remember my indifference to your proposition as a matter of interest, though not as a matter of kindness.

In consequence of the goodwill and confidence of all around me, I can at any moment convert my time into money, but I do not require more of the latter than is sufficient for necessary purposes. The sum, therefore, of l. The position which I presume you would wish me to hold is analogous to that of a standing counsel. His position was never above that of a "standing counsel. In regard to the lectureship at Woolwich, Mr. Abel, his successor, writes thus:—"Faraday appears to have enjoyed his weekly trips to Woolwich, which he continued for so many years, as a source of relaxation.